GYMN-L Digest - 26 Nov 1995 - Special issue

There are 8 messages totalling 1915 lines in this issue.

Topics in this special issue:

  1. training
  2. MEDIA: Gym & UK tv
  3. DTB Cup (Part Two)
  4. World Gymnastics Challenge - TV Coverage
  5. Jana (Hana?) Rulfova's Beam move
  6. What is?
  7. 1994 NCAA's and Alabama people
  8. FAQ


Date:    Sun, 26 Nov 1995 11:53:01 -0500
From:    ***@MV.MV.COM
Subject: training

        In light of the discussion recently about gymnast eligibility and
age for olympics, I have the following thought and question.

        The programs which I have seen recently tend to like the girls
young and train them and move them up as fast as the girls can handle it.
This brings us alot of young level 10 and elite's.  My question is what
is the difference if any between these programs and those which produce
gymnasts who are willing and able to compete in college.

        I am wondering if alot of girls who could have competed in
college are being burnt out physically or mentally before they get
there?  For example, the average age of retirement at our gym is 15,
after a year or 2 of level 10.  Is it the gymnasts, the program, or just
natural fall out from a difficult and demanding sport?

        Any input from college gymnasts, and coaches etc. which can help
shed some light on this phenomena would be appreciated.



Date:    Sun, 26 Nov 1995 16:00:52 GMT
Subject: MEDIA: Gym & UK tv

Three small developments that may be of interest to UK Gymn-ers.

1) Carlton (London ITV) are airing the first of a series of half-hour
Oxford Scientific Film productions on "The mechanics of sport" this
thursday p.m.. (7.30 in London; check other areas). The first of these
is dealing with athletics but I understand one of the subsequent ones
features gymnastics. Oxford Scientific Films are a company who
specialise in ultra-slow-mo filming that they've previously used in
nature films. Here they're using it to show how the human body adapts
to the mechanical demands of various sports.

2) My spies tell me that although it's 99% certain the BBC will host-
broadcast next spring's Birmingham european championships, this doesn't
necessarily mean there's going to be much UK coverage shown. Their
attitude, I'm told, is along the lines of "well, as it's taking place
here I suppose we've got to send cameras, but that doesn't mean *we've*
actually got to schedule much of it". In other words, business as usual.
The pictures may come from BBC cameras, but the chances are you'll need
eurosport to actually get to see more than half an hour of them on your

3) There's one addition to the list of potential outlets for gymnastics
coverage that I gave last month, although I present it heavily hedged
with riders and healthy-warnings.

There's a new-ish cable-only channel called "Live TV". (Yes. I know that
means 95% of people can't get it anyway.) It was run by the ludicrous
Janet Street-Porter, is now under ex-Sun editor Kelvin McKenzie and is
owned by the Mirror Group. It broadcasts mainly celebrity chat & movie
clips: imagine MTV without the music and you're about there. Basically,
it's dross.

So why am I wasting time on it?

Because McKenzie himself knows it's dross (heck, he edited the Sun, right?)
and has decided sports are the way to build it up. His problem: no money.
So they're actively hunting for any sports no-one else has bought-up and
which it's total of half a dozen cameras can cover. Last month it picked up
the Rugby League world cup matches the BBC (typically) decided it couldn't
be bothered to actually broadcast, and a week or so back showed live coverage
of the UK figure-skating championships. My information is that it as
*actively* looking for any other sporting events that are "on the market"
and aren't asking much for rights.

My conclusion: if you're involved in organising a meet (or know those who are)
give Live tv a ring (their offices are in Canary Wharf). They may be interested.
Specifically, I would suggest someone gives whoever is involved in organising
marketing at BAGA (if using the words "organising" and "marketing" in the
same sentence as "BAGA" aren't an obvious contradiction) a shake, wake them
gently out of their decade-long snooze and suggest they pitch the rights to
coverage of their next national championships to Kelvin's boys. I mean, it's
clear by now no-one else is interested. The BBC is only going to do europeans
on suffrance.

BTW, Live tv are so cash-strapped, don't be surprised if they ask *you* to
do the commentary!

...Hey! Sherwin! It could be your big break at last!!!



Date:    Sun, 26 Nov 1995 14:50:27 -0500
From:    ***@IC.AC.UK
Subject: DTB Cup (Part Two)

DTB Cup 1995  (Part Two)

Stuttgart, Germany      24/25 November, 1995

I discovered what the proper name is for the "head-to-head" final.
They call it "Winners' Final".

Mens Parallel Bars

1. Huang Liping         (CHN)   9.700
2. Vitaly Scherbo       (BLR)   9.675
3. Alexei Nemov         (RUS)   9.625
4. Rustam Charipov      (UKR)   9.612
5. Marius Toba          (GER)   9.450
6. Ivan Ivankov         (BLR)   9.275
7. Sergei Kharkov       (RUS)   9.250
8. Valeri Belenki       (GER)   9.150

Winners' Final:
1. Huang Liping         (CHN)   9.750
2. Vitaly Scherbo       (BLR)   9.400

I thought Scherbo was struggling during his routine but it just
showed how much I knew about this apparatus as he qualified for
the winners final.

Sergei Kharkov is still competing under the Russian flag...

Ivankov's dissapointing run continued .He was going well on the
bars but had to put a hand down upon landing the double piked
back dismount.

Womens Vault

Winners' Final:
1. Gina Gogean          (ROM)   9.687
2. Lavinia Milosovici   (ROM)   9.675

Don't know what happened during the "normal" final.

Gina gained "revenge" on Lavinia after Lavinia beat her yesterday
on floor by the minimal of margins. Gina was laughing after her
first vault when Octavian Belu passed by her and must have said
something pretty funny. (Hard to imagine but still... <g>)

Mens Floor

Winners' final:
1. Jordan Jovtchev      (BUL)   9.662
2. Vitaly Scherbo       (BLR)   9.637

Womens Beam

1. Lilia Podkopayeva    (UKR)   9.837
2. Gina Gogean          (ROM)   9.712
3. Lavinia Milosovici   (ROM)   9.687
4. Dina Kochetkova      (RUS)   9.650
5. Oksana Chusovitina   (UZB)   9.400
6. Nadja Ziehfreund     (GER)   9.037
7. Rufina Kreibich      (GER)   8.637
8. Adrienn Nyeste       (HUN)   8.412

Winners' Final:
1. Lilia Podkopayeva    (UKR)   9.850
2. Gina Gogean          (ROM)   9.787

Gina didn't do her flick series anymore after the recent disasters
on that particular skill. She now opted to do flick into back layout
to land on two feet instead. Pods' routines was clean and won the
title with ease. Gina was certainly upbeat today and smiled a lot
for a change. (I think that she had really tried to smile a lot more
these days) Gina performed a full-twsiting double tuck dismount,
unlike her normal plain double tuck.

Mens High Bar

1. Aljaz Pegan          (SLO)   9.725
2. Andreas Wecker       (GER)   9.700
3. Vitaly Scherbo       (BLR)   9.687
4. Huang Liping         (CHN)   9.662
5. Krasimir Dounev      (BUL)   9.500
6. Ivan Ivankov         (BLR)   9.487
7. Sergei Kharkov       (RUS)   9.075
8. Zoltan Supola        (HUN)   8.575

Winners' Final:
1. Andreas Wecker       (GER)   9.750
2. Aljaz Pegan          (SLO)   9.737

A very strong field this... all the routines are spectacular. Here
are what I saw of them:

Kharkov: The most spectacular of them all. Kovac; One arm Tkatchev;
and then the series of Tkatchev, piked Tkatchev, piked Tkatchev,
Geinger. He fell on the Geinger which was why he only got 9.075.

Dounev: He included a special six element series: piked Tkatchev,
Tkatchev, Tkatchev, hop full, hop full, Geinger. But he regrasped
the Geinger very close to the bar and nearly lost the swing. Anyway
there was a big deduction and he only scored 9.500.

Wecker: No elements in series but he did do two Kovacs as well as
a Tkatchev. Plus a well landed full-twisting double layout.

Scherbo: one arm Tkatchev; one arm Tkatchev into Geinger. Full-
twisting double layout dismount.

Huang: A piked Kovac! And also a one arm Tkatchev into Geinger. Full
twisting double layout dismount. I thought he should have scored

Pegan: The Pegan salto (Gaylord with half twist); series of Tkatchev,
Tkatchev, Geinger. And a triple back dismount (a step on landing

Ivankov: Kovac; piked Tkatchev; double twisting double layout

Supola: Fell on his second Tkatchev in his series. also sat on his
triple back dismount.

That is all from the DTB Cup. The mens field was certainly much
stronger than that of the womens. Maybe I think the womens field
lack the Americans and Chinese (and only one Russian), whereas the
mens field have gymnasts from nearly every  country.



Date:    Sun, 26 Nov 1995 14:59:31 -0500
From:    ***@AOL.COM
Subject: World Gymnastics Challenge - TV Coverage

Just wanted to those of you in the Pacific NW know that the World Gymnastics
Challenge is scheduled to be broadcast next Saturday, Dec. 2nd at noon on the
Vancouver (BC) station.  (I think it's sometimes channel 2, although I have
Viacom basic cable and get it as channel 54 - in the Seattle area)


Date:    Sun, 26 Nov 1995 15:31:46 -0600
Subject: Jana (Hana?) Rulfova's Beam move

OKay, I was by my library on the otherside of campus and I looked through
the IG's since this is bugging me alot. I looked up the 1981 Madrid
Women's Europeans and I was right that Rulfova competed and did do
a KOrbut on bars, but not on beam!!!! I think this was the July or Aug 1981
IG. The next issue had the coverage of the first Ennia Gold Cup and Rulfova
competed in that meet, as well. Here they said she did a Korbut on flip
on beam (ff straddle down), but no talk of the full twisting version.
So, I have no idea where she first did this move. Maybe it was in the 1983
Europeans? She didn't compete in Zagreb in 1982, did she?  I thought it was
Labakova and two others?



Date:    Sun, 26 Nov 1995 12:43:32 UTC-0800
From:    ***@CS.UBC.CA
Subject: Re: What is?

a German giant is a over grip giant with your arms behind you.
You stoop your legs between your hands like a jam to inverts
but you are moving the other direction and your sholders never dislocate.

A Xiou Ruizhi is a Tkatchov, front where you stay on the same
side of the bar and catch the bar in undergrip



Date:    Sun, 26 Nov 1995 15:19:44 -0600
Subject: 1994 NCAA's and Alabama people

Hi. I'm watching a copy of the 1994 NCAA's that I got from a friend, and
it does not identify the athletes. Now, for the most part, I've gotten
everyone picked out, including the individual competitors, but there
are still three individuals that I can't identify. Can someone tell me
with which team April Polito of Penn State, Robin Ewing of Kentucky
and Shelly Staumbaugh of Kent State were competing with? Thanks.

Jenny :-)P


Date:    Sun, 26 Nov 1995 21:50:39 GMT
From:    ***@CLOUD9.NET
Subject: FAQ

Attached, for your reading pleasure, is the latest draft of Gymn's FAQ.  For
those who are interested in doing so, please read through it and send me
your corrections and/or comments.


Debbie :)

Gymn's FAQ for Artistic Gymnastics

Section A:  Athletes
- Why are the gymnasts so young and why do they retire so
- Why do little kids move away from home to train?
- Is there a ranking system?
- Why didn't <famous gymnast> compete at...?
- Whatever happened to...?
- Who's who in the gymnastics world?
- How do I send fan mail/get an autograph?
- How does a gymnast become an "elite"?

Section B: Competitions
- What are the more prestigious meets?
- What is Olympic Order?
- How does a gymnast know when to start his/her routine?
- What is podium training?
- What are compulsories?
- How do they pick the Olympics/Worlds team?
- What are the upcoming competitions? How do I get tickets?

Section C:  Scoring/Judging
- What is the Code of Points?
- How are gymnasts scored?
- Are the gymnasts required to do any specific moves?
- What is a "start value"? What is "bonus"?
- What deductions do judges take?
- What is Competition 1A, etc.?
- Why is the Code revised every four years?
- What is the highest rank for a judge, and how do they get
- So-and-so was over/underscored.  Why?
- Do gymnasts submit a routine ahead of time to a judge?
- How do judges remember what a gymnast has done when he
  scores a routine?

Section D:  Technical Elements
- About this section.
- How are the moves named?
- Basics.
- Vault.
- Uneven bars and high bar.
- Balance beam.
- Dance.
- Tumbling.
- Pommel Horse.
- Rings.
- Parallel bars.

Section E:  History
- How did gymnastics begin?
- Who was the first to...?
- Who are the current champions?
- Who are the former champions?

Section F:  Other
- What is the IOC? (FIG, USOC, USAG, USGF, NCAA, AAU?)
- How do I get tickets to...?
- Why don't gymnasts really compete as a team, all at
- What is rhythmic gymnastics?
- How do I get involved?
- What do gymnasts wear?
- What is the chalk for?

Section G:  References
- Are there any good gymnastics resources on the Net...?
- Are there any good publications to subscribe to?

[A.1]  Why are the gymnasts so young and why do they retire
so early?

Teenagers are most successful in women's gymnastics around
the age of 16 -- a gymnast usually reaches her maximum
combination of flexibility, strength and aerobic activity.
There are certainly exceptions (Kelly Garrison (USA) was 21
at the '88 Olympics).  Strength is a more predominant factor
in men's gymnastics, which is why the prime age for men's
gymnastics is higher, around 23 or 24.

The current FIG rule is that a gymnast must be 15 by the end
of the calendar year to compete in an Olympics or Worlds
(exception: usually in the pre-Olympic year, gymnasts can
compete if they turn 14 by year's end -- this allows
potential Olympians to gain international experience).
However, beginning with the 1997 Worlds, gymnasts will need
to be 16 by the end of the calendar year.

[A.2]  Why do little kids move away from home to train?

Often a gymnast, or a parent of a gymnast, will feel that
s/he cannot get the proper training at a club in his/her
hometown, and so will transfer to a reputable gym to get
"better" coaching.  Each coach has a different style and
many gymnasts will transfer in hopes of finding the right
environment.  Gymnasts who constantly transfer from gym to
gym are called "club hoppers."

[A.3]  Is there a ranking system?

A gymnast's ranking is determined by his/her placement at a
Championships or Olympics (USA, Worlds, etc.).  If a gymnast
above him/her retires, then the gymnast moves up in the
rankings.  Rankings are not cherished in gymnastics the way
they are in other sports, like tennis, and are not used for
"seeding" at competitions.

[A.4]  Why didn't <famous gymnast> compete at <competition>?

There are too many competitions and too many gymnasts for
all of them to compete at every international invitational.
Also, gymnasts often need to take time off from their
competition schedule to heal injuries, train new skills, and
rebuild mentally.

[A.5]  Whatever happened to...?

Bela Karolyi -- "Retired" in 1992 but came out of retirement
to coach Zmeskal, Boginskaya and other potential Olympians.

Nadia Comaneci -- defected from Romania in November 1989;
does public appearances and exhibitions; has her own leotard
line (Milano International); engaged to Bart Conner.

Mary Lou Retton -- motivational speaker; living in Houston;
recently had a baby.

Svetlana Boginskaya and Kim Zmeskal --  both live in
Houston, TX, and are training for their common goal of
comebacks in the '96 Olympics.   Boginskaya trains at
Brown's Central; Zmeskal trains at Karolyi's.

Vitaly Scherbo -- Still training and competing.  Lives with
his wife and daughter in Johnstown, PA.

[A.6]  Who's who in the gymnastics world?

Bela Karolyi -- One of the most successful and controversial
coaches in gymnastics history.  He coached Nadia Comaneci,
Mary Lou Retton, and Kim Zmeskal, who have all won either a
Worlds or Olympics.  Very controversial for his flamboyant
promotion of his gymnasts, and strict coaching style.

Nadia Comaneci -- Romanian gymnast who made history by
scoring the first Olympic 10.0 (she actually received 7
perfect scores at the '76 Olympics).  She is also the only
female gymnast ever to win 3 consecutive European
championship all-around titles.

Olga Korbut -- The "pixie" who stole everyone's heart at the
Munich Olympics in 1972.  Together with Nadia, she brought
women's gymnastics into the TV spotlight in the 70's.

Kim Zmeskal -- First American all-around World champion
(1991), and three-time US champion (1990-92).  She was
America's most decorated female gymnast at the time, was
very popular -- and still is.

Shannon Miller -- Two-time all-around World champion (1993-
94).  The most decorated US gymnast, having won medals in
every major international from 1991 through 1994.  Trains at
Dynamo Gymnastics in Oklahoma.

Svetlana Boginskaya -- Known for her gymnastics beauty and
artistry; 1989 all-around World champion; two-time all-
around European champion.  Most popular for her innovative
floor routines.

Vitaly Scherbo -- One of the most successful male gymnasts
ever, having won six out of a possible seven gold medals at
the '92 Olympics.  1993 all-around World champion.  Not
known for his shyness, he has been called the "Charles
Barkley of gymnastics."

Daniela Silivas -- Always the bridesmaid, but never the
bride.  Very popular Romanian gymnast who "never won the big
one but should have."  1987 all-around European champion.

Dmitri Bilozerchev -- 1983 all-around World champion at the
astonishing age of 16.  Only weeks prior to the 1985 World
championships, he was in a car crash which broke his leg in
40 places.  Doctors were about to amputate until they
realized he was the world champion.  They were able to save
the leg, and Bilozerchev returned to win the 1987 World
championships in one of the greatest comebacks in the
history of the sport.

Steve Nunno -- Coach of Shannon Miller, two-time World
champion.  Considered by some to be the "new Bela," as he is
also a controversial coach with a strict style.

[A.7]  How do I send fan mail/get an autograph?

If you know the gymnast's federation's or gym club's
address, it's best to send your fan mail or request for an
autograph to the gymnast, in care of the federation or club.
The most common are listed below; for a complete list, check
out the following directory:

If you don't know the federation of club's address, you can
just send the letter to your country's federation, who will
then forward it to the gymnast.  Be patient in your response
as gymnasts are very busy!

Belarussian Gymnastics Federation
Kirov Street, 8/2
220600 Minsk

Chinese Gymnastics Federation
Rue Tiyukuan 9
People's Republic of China

Romanian Gymnastics Federation
Str. Vasile Conta 16

Russian Gymnastics Federation
Lujnetskaya Nabereynaya 8
119270 Moscow

Ukrainian Gymnastics Federation
Esplanadnaya Street 42
252023 Kiev

USA Gymnastics
Pan American Plaza, Suite 300
Indianapolis, IN 46225

Cincinnati Gymnastics Academy
Port Union Road
Fairfield, OH 45014

Dynamo Gymnastics
P.O. Box 270535
Oklahoma City, OK 73137

Hill's Angels
Lindbergh Drive
Gaithersburg, MD 20879

Karolyi's Gymnastics
Houston, TX 77090

[A.8]  How does a gymnast become an "elite"?

In the US, the gymnastics system is divided into "levels,"
the top one being "elite."  For the girls, there are levels
1-10, National Elite, and then the big cheese, the
International Elite (along with many age group subdivisions
of those levels).  For the boys, the levels go from Class 6
to Class 1, then the Elite levels.  A gymnast progresses
through the levels by demonstrating his/her accomplishment
at his/her current level; the accomplishment is measured
through testing at the lower levels and meet scores at the
higher levels.  Most countries have a similar "level" system
for classifying their gymnasts.

[B.1]  What are the most prestigious meets?

To win the Olympics is the ultimate dream of many top
gymnasts.  World championships is right behind that, and
just as high up there with some people.  For the European
countries, European championships are very high on the list,
because most of the top gymnasts come from Europe.  The
equivalent other continental championships (Asian Games, Pan
Am Games, etc.) are certainly big meets but not as
prestigious.  There are many international invitationals
that are highly regarded, too:  the Chunichi Cup in Japan
and the DTB Cup in Germany are probably the two biggest

[B.2]  What is Olympic Order?

A defined order in which the gymnasts usually compete their
events.  Here they are, with their common abbreviations in

Men                           Women
Floor Exercise (FX)       Vault (V)
Pommel Horse (PH)         Uneven Bars (UB)
Still Rings (SR or R)     Balance Beam (B)
Vault (VT)                Floor Exercise (FX)
Parallel Bars (PB)
High Bar (HB)

[B.3]  How does a gymnast know when to start his/her

The head judge will signal the gymnast -- usually with a
green flag, wave of the hand, or light -- when the judges
are ready for the gymnast to begin his/her routine.  The
gymnast returns this signal by presenting him/herself to the
judges by raising one or both arms.  At small meets, a judge
will often just raise his/her hand or nod to the gymnast as
a signal to begin.

[B.4]  What is podium training?

At most international meets, the competition apparatus is
raised off the floor and set on podiums.  Thus, when the
gymnasts are practicing on this raised competition
equipment, it's called podium training.  Podium training is
usually well defined with each team assigned to a time slot,
organizers leading the gymnasts from event to event, and
even team leotards designed just for the purpose of podium

[B.5]  What are compulsories?

Compulsories are routines that have been defined before an
event, that every gymnast must perform at the meet.  The
same compulsory is used for four years and changes after
every Olympics.  Compulsories will be dropped
internationally after the 1996 Olympics.  Most countries use
compulsories for their younger kids, though, and so
compulsories will certainly continue to exist in the
gymnastics world in some fashion.

[B.6]  How do they pick the Olympic/Worlds teams?

Each country is different.  Usually, the teams are either
hand picked or selected through competition results (or a
bit of both).  In the US, the selection procedure has
historically been to use a combination of scores at national
championships and an Olympic/World Trials; the procedure is
determined by a committee and then the procedures must be
submitted to the USOC for approval before they are

[B.7]  What are the upcoming competitions?  How do I get

Check out the Gym Calendar for full details on competitions:

In the US, tickets are usually sold through Ticketmaster in
the city of the competition.  You can also call USAG for
information (317-237-5050).

[C.1]  What is the Code of Points?

The Code of Points is the criteria for each event which has
been set out by the Federation Internationale de Gymnastique
(FIG).  These rules cover all aspects of a gymnast's
performance, and include both the compulsory and optional
exercises.  The Code assigns values of difficulty ranging
from A to E, and demonstrates the requirements of each move
with illustrations (such as the angle of handstand that a
gymnast must reach on bars).  The Code also has rules for
how one qualifies to become a judge, the various categories
of judges, seating arrangements for judges at competitions,
and the specific functions of the judges.  The Code also
requires "norms of conduct" for both gymnasts and coaches.

[C.2]  How are gymnasts scored?

Compulsory Exercises:  All compulsory exercises begin with a
start value of 10 points, with deductions taken for any
errors or falls which may occur during the routine.

Optional Exercises (Women):  With the exception of vault,
where each vault is assigned a value, all women's routines
are scored from 9.40 points.  A gymnast can earn an
additional 0.6 points by showing special combinations and/or
extra D- or E-rated elements, for a maximum start value of

Optional Exercises (Men):  Men's routines start from a value
of 9.0.  Since a D-element is required, performing one will
automatically raise the start value to 9.1.  If a D-element
is not performed, there is a 0.1 deduction (for a start
value of 8.9).  The extra 1.0 point can be earned by
performing E-rated elements and special connections.

[C.3]  Are the gymnasts required to do any specific moves?

Some of the apparatus have required elements which will
incur deductions if not completed in the optional routine.
Here are some of the requirements:

Beam:         full turn on 1 leg
              gymnastic-acrobatic series
              one leap with great amplitude

Pommels:      scissors

High Bar:     inverted giant swings

Rings:        swing to handstand
              press to handstand

Floor (W):    gymnastic-acrobatic series
              one tumbling pass with a double salto

Floor (M):    one-legged balance
              minimum of 2 gymnastic-acrobatic series

[C.4]  What is a start value?  What is bonus?


All routines start from a 9.40 (except for vault).

Value Parts (A=0.2, B=0.4, C=0.6, D=0.8)      3.00 points
Combination (construction of the exercise)    2.00 points
Execution                                     4.40 points
Bonus Points                                  0.60 points
                                             10.00 points

If a gymnast attempts to earn bonus points by performing an
extra D- or E-rated element but falls or has a break worth
0.2 or more, then she does not receive the bonus points.


Except for vault, all men's routines are scored from 9.0.
The gymnast can earn bonus points by performing extra D- and
E-rated elements.  Each extra D element is worth 0.1; each
extra E element is worth 0.2 each for a total of 1.0:

Difficulty (A=0.1, B=0.2, C=0.4, D=0.6)       2.40 points
Combination (3 per event @ 0.4 each)          1.20 points
Presentation                                  5.40 points
Bonus Points                                  1.00 points

Men's vaults have the following ratings

A=8.6         C=9.2          E=9.8
B=8.9         D=9.5

and the gymnast can receive up to 0.2 bonus for distance
(0.1 for over 3.5 meters; 0.2 for over 4.0 meters).

[C.5]  What deductions do judges take?

The FIG has set out a Table for General Faults.  Small
faults receive up to 0.15 points' deduction; medium faults
receive up to 0.3 points' deduction; large faults result in
deductions worth more than 0.3 points and may lead to an
invalid exercise.  Following are some of the more common
faults seen:

Slight hop upon dismount                      0.05 points
Poor foot form                                0.10 points
One step upon dismount                        0.10 points
Leg separation (each time)                    0.15 points
Insufficient split position (when required)   0.15 points
Bent arms in support/bent knees               0.20 points
Insufficient height in leaps                  0.20 points
Two steps upon dismount                       0.20 points
Lack of diversified composition               0.20 points
Insufficient use of entire apparatus          0.20 points
Grasping apparatus to avoid falling           0.30 points
Three steps upon dismount                     0.30 points
Fall on one or both hands, knees or hips      0.50 points

[C.6]  What is Competition 1A, etc.?

Competition 1A is also known as the compulsory exercises.
Every gymnast performs the same routines on each apparatus.
These routines are created by various member nations of the
FIG and test the gymnast's mastery of basic elements and
combinations.  The compulsory exercises are usually
performed only at Olympics, Worlds or national
championships.  The FIG has decided to discontinue this
portion of the competition after the 1996 Olympics.

Competition 1B is also known as the team optionals.  This
portion of the competition is usually held only during a
Worlds or Olympics.  The gymnasts are allowed to show their
own routines on each apparatus.

Competition II is also called the all-around.  The gymnasts
begin from a score of zero, and the gymnast with the highest
score at the end of the competition becomes the all-around
champion.  There is usually a limit on the number of
gymnasts from a country that may compete in the all-around

Competition III is also called the event finals.  The best 8
gymnasts on each event (no more than 2 gymnasts per country
are allowed in each final).  The gymnasts begin from a score
of zero, and the highest scorer wins.  The vault final is
the exception:  each gymnast performs 2 different vaults,
and the scores are averaged to arrive at the final score.

[C.7]  Why is the Code revised every four years?

The FIG revises the Code every 4 years for several reasons.
One, gymnasts and coaches from the leading countries are
able to meet the requirements of a new Code fairly easily
after 4 years and would receive excessively high scores if
the Code were not adjusted to meet the level of the
gymnasts.  Two, by regularly changing the requirements, the
FIG tries to ensure that the sport will continue to evolve.

[C.8]  What is the highest rank for a judge, and how do they
get there?

The highest judge's ranking is the FIG Brevet.  A beginning
judge will attend workshops run by his federation and start
by judging at meets where beginning gymnasts compete.  As a
judge passes each test, he can move up and receive
certification to judge at higher level meets.

[C.9]  So-and-so was over/underscored.  Why?

Because gymnastics uses subjective judging, the results of a
competition are sometimes disputed by the fans, federations,
and coaches.  Overscoring can be the result of home
advantage, a gymnast's popularity, judging bias, and other
factors.  These same factors can likewise contribute to

[C.10]  Do gymnasts submit a routine ahead of time to the

A gymnast does not submit his routine in advance.  The only
exception is women's optional vault, where the gymnasts have
to post the number of the vault they plan to perform.

If a gymnast has invented a new element and would like to
receive possible bonus points for it in a meet, s/he can
submit the skill to the FIG beforehand.  It is evaluated and
rated by the FIG.

Judges generally see a gymnast's routine prior to
competition, however, because the judges attend podium
training.  This is beneficial because a judge can make note
of unusual combinations (or routines that lack required
elements, etc.) and be certain to evaluate the routine
correctly during competition.

[C.11]  How do judges remember what a gymnast has done when
he scores a routine?

The FIG has created a shorthand system so the judges can
easily "write down" a routine while it is being performed.
>From there, the judge can quickly review and score a

[D.0]  About this section.

This section gives a VERY BRIEF guide to help a new
gymnastics fan understand some of what they might see on TV.
We would like to assemble a more technically detailed
glossary of elements.  Please note that skill descriptions
are merely notes on how to recognize the skill, NOT on how
to perform the skill!

[D.1]  How are the moves named?

Some elements are named after the gymnast who first
performed the element, while others are merely descriptive
terms of the element performed.  Examples of the former
include the Tsukahara vault, the Comaneci salto and the
Korbut flic; examples of the latter include the aerial
cartwheel, the double back somersault and the handstand.

[D.2]  Basics

Here are some of the most common terms used in naming

Tuck:  the gymnast brings his knees to his chest; the legs
are bent.

Pike:  the gymnast bends at the hips and brings his legs to
his chest while keeping the legs straight.

Layout:  the gymnast keeps his body completely stretched.

Arch:  the legs are kept straight and the back (spine) is
overextended so that the body position takes on a convex

Split:  one leg is extended straight in front of the body;
the other is extended straight behind the body, forming a
180-degree angle.

Straddle:  similar to a split, with the legs extended on
either side of the body (as opposed to front/back).

Flip:  a somersault without the use of the hands.

Twist:  turning movements defined by the number of times the
gymnast completes a rotation around the logitudinal axis.

When speaking of tumbling skills, "flip" refers to rotation
around the hip-to-hip axis of the body, and a "twist" refers
to rotation around the head-to-toe axis.  Rotation around
the front-to-back axis is unusual and referred to as a "side
somi."  Beginning and ending positions are used to determine
the number of twists.

Round-off:  a cartwheel with both feet landing at the same
time.  Used by gymnasts to accelerate a tumbling pass; most
elite gymnasts have the half twist completed by the time his
hands hit the ground.

Handspring:  also called a flic flac or a flip flop.  A
gymnast jumps from feet to hands to feet again.  Typically
follows a round-off in a back tumbling pass on floor.  The
"snapdown" from hands to feet can generate a lot of power.

[D.3]  Vault

Women's vault is 4 feet high, 5 feet long and 14 inches
wide.  Men's vault is also 14 inches wide, but is 5 feet 3
inches long and 4 feet 6 inches high.  Women vault
widthwise, while the men vault lengthwise.  Both men and
women run down a carpeted runway which is 80 feet long and
jump onto a springboard in order to propel themselves onto
and over the horse.  The gymnast leaves the board from both
feet and briefly touches the horse with both hands (this is
called the preflight).  He then pushes off the horse and
performs flips and/or twists in the air before landing.  As
this event lasts only seconds, the goal is to execute the
vault in one fluid motion and land "like a dart" with no
extra movements.

Skills to look for:

- Cuervo:  handspring onto the horse, 1/2 twist off to
immediate back somersault.

- Piked front 1/2:  handspring onto the horse, piked front
somersault off with 1/2 twist to land.

- Tsukahara:  1/4 twist onto the horse, 1/4 twist off to
immediate back somersault.

- Yurchenko:  round-off onto the springboard and flip flop
back onto the horse ("Yurchenko" refers to the entry.)

[D.4]  Uneven Bars and High Bar

Uneven Bars:  The upper bar is 7.6 feet (2.3 m) high, the
lower bar is 5 feet (1.5 m) high, and the bars are 8 feet
long.  A gymnast moves from one bar to the other using a
variety of skills (such as kips, swings and saltos) in a
fluid motion and with good form.  Each exercise needs to
have at least 10 value parts and at least 3 bar changes.
The dismounts contain saltos and/or twists and, like all
dismounts, should be landed cleanly.  Grip changes add
difficulty to elements.  A gymnast is determined to be
"facing" in a specific direction by the gymnast's direction
in the hang position.

High Bar:  the bar is 8.5 feet (2.5 m) high and 8 feet (2.44
m) long.  Like women's uneven bars, high bar consists of
continuous swinging moves, changes in direction and grips,
and an exciting (and solid) dismount.

Skills to look for:

- Cast to handstand:  a gymnast in a front support swings
his legs back and out from the bar, lifting his body to
straighten at the shoulders, finishing in a handstand.
Usually preceded by a kip, a move gymnasts use to go from a
hang to a front support (hips by hands on the bar, gymnast
facing up).

- Free hip:  from a handstand on the bar, the gymnast swings
down and backwards with straight arms and a slightly piked
body (hips are close to the bar), the momentum causing the
gymnast to circle the bar.  The gymnast "opens" back up to a
handstand position.

- Gaylord:  release from a front swing to 1.5 forward
somersaults over the bar.  A Gaylord II is released from a
back swing, begins with an immediate half twist (so that the
gymnast is facing "forward"), and then proceeds with the 1.5
forward somersault.

- Giant:  a 360-degree swing around the bar performed with
straight arms and body position.

- Gienger:  release to back somersault and 1/2 twist in pike
position to recatch.

- Jaeger:  release from a front swing to a front somersault
to recatch on the same side of the bar.  Usually done

- Kovacs:  release to 1.5 back somersault over the bar to
recatch.  Usually a very dynamic move characterized by the
opening of the gymnast out of the tucked position.

- Pak salto:  from HB to LB, backward swing between the bars
with a straight body to recatch LB.

- Stalder:  360-degree swing around the bar in a straddle
pike position.

- Tkachev:  also called a reverse hecht.  Release to front
somersault traveling backward over the bar in a
straddle/pike position (sometimes pike or layout), then
recatching the bar.

[D.5]  Balance Beam

The beam is 4 feet high (1.2m), 16 feet 3 inches (4.9m) long
and 4 inches (10cm) wide.  Routines consist of a combination
of dance moves, flips, leaps, balances and turns.  The
gymnast strives to give the impression that she is
performing on a much wider surface.  A routine must last at
least 70 seconds, but not longer than 90 seconds.

Skills to look for:

- Omelianchik:  back dive with 3/4 twist to handstand.  More
commonly seen with a 1/4 twist.

- Flip flop, layout step-out:  flip flops and layouts differ
on beam from "normal" flight skills because of the nature of
the event.  Flip flops tend to have almost no flight in the
second half of the skill, and layouts are not "true" layouts
because they do not reach the gymnast's shoulder height.

- Korbut flic:  back dive to hands and swing down to finish
sitting on B in a straddle position.

- Punch front:  front somersault from a 2-foot takeoff.

- Rulfova:  Korbut flic with a full twist.

[D.6]  Dance

Many gymnasts study ballet and other types of dance to
improve their body position and movement.  Gymnasts who have
studied dance usually display better form and fluidity
during their routines than gymnasts with a weaker dance
background.  Dance is a key aspect of balance beam and
women's floor exercise.

Skills to look for:

- Popa:  a full-twisting straddle jump.

- Switch leap:  gymnast initiates the leap with a leg raised
in front but "switches" the position in the air, with that
leg moving to the back of the split.

- Sheep jump, etc:  all these leaps involve the gymnast
throwing her head back and thus not being able to spot the
landing on beam.  For a sheep jump, both legs and thrown
back bent (and ultimately touch the head).  Ring leap: one
leg forward and straight, one leg back and bent.  Yang Bo:
like ring leap, but with both legs straight.

[D.7]  Tumbling

The floor mat is 40 feet (12m) square.  Since both gymnastic
and acrobatic skills are required on some events, tumbling
is a major part of the sport.  By springing from one's hands
or feet, the best gymnasts launch themselves into the air
and perform multiple saltos and/or twists before landing.
Currently, front tumbling is popular because the Code has
given it a high value.  Front tumbling is more difficult
than back tumbling, and was less common until the Code
started encouraging gymnasts to do it.  The most popular
tumbling passes tend to be "bounce back" passes which end
with the gymnast performing an immediate punch front to
reverse momentum and sometimes even tumbling back in the
other direction.

Skills to look for:

- Full-in:  double somersault with a full twist in the first
somersault.  A full-out has the twist on the second
somersault (coming "out" of the skill) and a half-in
half-out is, as it sounds, with the twist split between both

- Rudi:  1.5 twisting flip in layout position from a front

- Triple twist.

- Round-off, flip flop...

- Double back/double layout

[D.8] Pommel Horse

The pommel horse is 14 inches wide, 4 feet high (1.09 m) and
5 feet 4 inches (1.62 m) long.  There a pair of rigid
handles in the center of the horse which are about 17 inches
(43 cm) apart.  These handles are called the pommels.  The
horse is covered either with leather or a synthetic fabric.
Since only the hands are allowed to touch the horse,
exceptional strength, balance and endurance are required for
this event.  Elements are performed on both the horse itself
and the pommels, using the entire length of the horse.  The
legs should be straight and the toes pointed.  The top
gymnasts usually precede their dismounts by performing
handstands with twisting movements.

Skills to look for:

- Flairs:  with alternating hand support, the legs are
straight and straddled and circle the body.

- Scissors:  sideways swinging of the body with straight
legs and arms, alternating hand support and legs knifing up
and down on the side of the horse.

[D.9]  Rings

Two rings are used; each one is suspended from a bar which
is 18 feet (5.48m) high.  The rings are 8 inches in diameter
and are attached by 2 feet 3 inch (68.6cm) straps to wire
cables almost 18 inches (45.7cm) apart.  The rings are 8.5
feet (2.51m) off the mat.  This event is also referred to as
the "still rings" because the gymnast's goal is to keep the
rings from swinging as much as possible.  Both circling and
strength moves are performed.  When performing a strength
move, the gymnast is required to hold the position for at
least two seconds to demonstrate mastery of the skill.

Skills to look for:

- Iron cross:  arms straight and held out at either side of
the body, which is also straight.

- Maltese:  Resembles a horizontal cross, with the arms at
the side of and closer to the body.

- L-cross:  Iron cross, but with 90-degree bend at hips and
straight legs.

- Planche:  handstand with body parallel to the floor.  This
is common on many events, actually, including parallel bars,
floor exercise (men), and balance beam.

[D.10] Parallel Bars

The bars are 11.5 feet (3.4 m) long and 5 feet 7 inches (1.7
m) high.  The width of the bars is adjustable from 16 to 20
inches.  A routine combines swinging moves, strength
elements and flight elements, performed both above and below
the bars.  Some gymnasts perform moves on the outside of the
bars, as well.  Like other routines, flow and rhythm are
necessary for a good score.

Skills to look for:

- Back toss:  from handstand, backward swing with brief hand
release (while arms circle back) to recatch in handstand.

- Diamidov:  from handstand, backward swing finishing with
360-degree turn on 1 arm to return to handstand.

- Healy:  from handstand, forward swing beginning with 360-
degree turn on 1 arm to return to handstand.

- Stutz:  from handstand, forward swing and let go of the
bar, perform a half-turn in the air and finish in a

Peach basket:  a piked swing underneath the bars to gain
momentum from which the gymnast opens and releases to "pop"
above the bars.

[E.1]  How did gymnastics begin?

The earliest evidence of gymnastics can be found on frescoes
from the Minoan civilization (2700-1400 BC), which depict
acrobats leaping over the horns of a bull.

"Gymnastics" is derived from the Greek word "gumnos" (naked)
and, while gymnastics was never included in the ancient
Olympic Games, it was regarded as training for other sports,
such as wrestling and athletics.  When the Games were
abolished in 393 AD, there was a decline in the
participation of many sports, including gymnastics.  For
several centuries, therefore, the sport was practiced mainly
by acrobats performing their skills in traveling circuses
and for royalty.

In the 18th century, philosophers began to stress the
importance of physical exercise, but it was not until
Frederic Louis Jahn recognized the national importance of
gymnastics and turned it into a means of the German
patriotic feeling that gymnastics became popular throughout
Europe.  Jahn, called the "father of gymnastics," invented
various apparatus and exercises, wrote a book called "Die
Deutsche Turnkunst" and developed Turner (gymnastic)
societies in Germany.  By the late 1800's many other
countries had formed their own gymnastics societies, each of
which was organized on a national level.  Nicolas J.
Cuperus, president of the Belgian Gymnastics Federation,
invited delegates from several European gymnastics unions to
a meeting held in conjunction with the Belgian gymnastics
festival in 1881, and thus was born the European Gymnastics
Federation, or FEG (renamed the Federation Internationale de
Gymnastique ("FIG") in 1921).  Beginning in 1896 the FEG met
every year or two, each time admitting more countries as
members of the Federation.

The early competitions featured both gymnastics exercises
(on pommel horse, rings, parallel and high bars, for
example) and athletic exercises (running, high jump, weight
lifting and pole vaulting), and were held in outdoor arenas.
The athletic events were abolished at the 1936 Olympic
Games, and were used for the last time at the 1950 World

Women began performing in gymnastics societies in the late
1800's.  The first international festival which included
female participation was held in Luxembourg in 1909, and
exercises included rhythmic, balletic and choreographic
routines.  The Amsterdam Olympics of 1928 featured the first
women's gymnastics competition; women competed at the World
Championships for the first time at the 1934 Budapest

[E.2]  Who was the first to...?

Being the first to execute a gymnastics skill in
international competition is an accomplishment highly
regarded in the sport.  Moves are often named after the
gymnast who first performs them.  Here is our list of "who
was the first to...?", to the best of our knowledge:



-  Tsukahara
     Ludmila Turischeva (URS), '74 Worlds
-  Full twist on, full twist off
     Olga Korbut (URS), '74 Worlds
-  Full-twisting tucked Tsukahara
     Nelli Kim (URS), '76 Olympics
-  Tucked front
     Marta Egervari (HUN), Maria Filatova (URS),
     '76 Olympics
-  Layout Tsukahara
     Maria Filatova & Natalia Shaposhnikova (URS),
     '77 World Cup
-  Full-twisting layout Tsukahara
     Natalia Shaposhnikova (URS), '78 Worlds
-  Tucked front with 1/2 twist
     Christa Canary (USA), '78 Worlds
-  Cuervo
     Christa Canary (USA), '79 Worlds
-  Tucked double front
     Choe Jong Sil (PRK), '80 Olympics
-  Full twist on, front tuck off
     Elena Davydova (URS), '80 Olympics
-  Layout Yurchenko
     Natalia Yurchenko (URS), '82 World Cup
-  Full-twisting layout Yurchenko
     Natalia Yurchenko (URS), '82 World Cup
-  1.5-twisting layout Yurchenko
     Elena Shushunova (URS), '84 Olomouc
-  Double-twisting layout Yurchenko
     Elena Gurova (URS), '84 DTB Cup
-  Yurchenko on, 1/2 twist to immediate layout front off
     Snejana Hristakieva (BUL), '92 Olympics
-  Layout front
     Irina Evdokimova (KAZ), '93 Worlds
-  1/4 on, 1/4 off to layout front salto
     Jaycie Phelps (USA), '94 Dortmund Worlds

Uneven Bars:


-  Front salto over LB to sit on LB
     Marta Egervari & Krisztina Medveczky (HUN), '74 Worlds
-  Jump to clear hip on HB to handstand with 1/2 turn
     Julianne McNamara (USA), '81 Worlds
-  Round-off, Arabian over LB to brief sit on LB
     Michelle Goodwin (USA), '81 Worlds
-  Round-off, tucked back somersault over LB to recatch LB
     Birgit Senff (GDR), '84 Olomouc


-  Toe on, 1/2 twist to tucked back
     Nadia Comaneci (ROM), '75 Europeans
-  Tucked double back
     Nadia Chatarova (BUL), '76 Olympics
-  Hecht to immediate full-twisting tucked back
     Natalia Tereschenko (URS), '78 American Cup
-  Hecht, 1/2 twist to immediate tucked front
     Ma Yanhong (CHN), '79 Worlds
-  Double twisting flyaway
     Kathy Johnson (USA), '81 Worlds
-  Tucked full-in
     Maiko Morio (JPN), '83 Worlds
-  Double Layout
     Diana Dudeva (BUL), '87 Worlds
-  Tucked double front
     Lacramioara Filip (ROM), Sarah Mercer (GBR),
     '89 Worlds
-  Tucked full-out
     Oksana Chusovitina (URS), '91 Worlds
-  Tucked full-in full-out
     Oksana Fabrichnova (RUS), '93 Worlds


-  FF from HB to recatch HB (Korbut)
     Olga Korbut (URS), '72 Olympics
-  Deltchev
     Natalia Shaposhnikova (URS), '77 World Cup
-  Giant swing
     Natalia Shaposhnikova (URS), '77 World Cup
-  Full-twisting Korbut
     Elena Mukhina (URS), '77 World Cup
-  Back stalder to handstand with full turn in handstand
     Marcia Frederick (USA), '78 Worlds
-  Tkachev
     Elena Davydova (URS), '80 Olympics
-  Tkachev to immediate Deltchev
     Natalia Yurchenko (URS), '83 Worlds
-  Underswing from HB with 1.5 twists and flight over LB to
   hand on LB (Strong)
     Lori Strong (CAN), '89 Worlds
-  Swing forward on HB (facing out), counter salto forward
   to recatch in reverse grip (Kim)
     Kim Gwang Suk (PRK), '89 Worlds
-  Def (full-twisting Gienger)
     Snejana Hristakieva (BUL), '91 Junior Europeans
-  Gaylord I Salto
     Mo Huilan (CHN), '94 Brisbane Worlds

Balance Beam:


-  Press to handstand
     Larissa Latynina & Tamara Manina (URS), '62 Worlds
-  Front tuck
     Stella Zacharova (URS), '79 World Cup
-  RO, FF
     Maxi Gnauck (GDR), '81 Europeans
-  RO, full-twisting tucked back
     Kelly Garrison (USA), '85 Worlds
-  RO, layout
     Natalia Yurchenko (URS), '85 Worlds
-  RO, full-twisting FF
     Patricia Luconi (ITA), '87 Worlds
-  Jump to 1-armed handstand
     Janine Rankin (CAN), '87 Worlds
-  Front handspring immediate tucked front
     Anastasia Dzyundzyak (UZB), '94 Asian Games


-  Cartwheel, tucked back salto
     Vera Caslvaska (TCH), '62 Worlds
-  Tucked front
     Keiko Ikeda (JPN), '62 Worlds
-  Cartwheel, full-twisting layout
     Vera Caslavska (TCH), '68 Olympics
-  Cartwheel, double-twisting layout
     Nadia Comaneci (ROM), '75 Europeans
-  Tucked double back
     Elena Mukhina & Natalia Shaposhnikova (URS),
     '77 World Cup
-  Piked double back
     Maria Filatova (URS), '77 World Cup
-  Full-twisting tucked double back
     Albina Shishova & Tatiana Frolova (URS), '83 Worlds
-  Triple twist
     Iva Cervenkova (TCH), '83 Worlds


-  Cartwheel
     Eva Bosakova (TCH), '56 Olympics
-  Flick flack
     Erika Zuchold (GDR), '66 Worlds
-  Front handspring
     Karin Janz & Erika Zuchold (GER), Vera Caslavska (TCH),
     '68 Olympics
-  Tucked back salto
     Olga Korbut (URS) and Nancy Thies (USA), '72 Olympics
-  FF to swing down and straddle beam (Korbut)
     Olga Korbut (URS), '72 Olympics
-  Layout salto
     Aurelia Dobre (ROM), '74 Worlds
-  Two consecutive layout stepout saltos
     Eugenia Golea (ROM), '84 American Cup
-  Tucked front salto
     Carola Dombeck (GDR), '76 Olympics
-  Tucked side salto
     Elena Davydova (URS), '76 American Cup
-  Side FF to back hip circle under beam (Yurchenko loop)
     Natalia Yurchenko (URS), '79 Spartakiade
-  Full-twisting Korbut (Rulfova)
     Jana Rulfova (TCH), '81 Worlds
-  Tucked back salto with full twist (from RO)
     Albina Shishova (URS), '83 Worlds
-  Tucked back salto with full twist (from a stand)
     Aleftina Priakhina (URS), '86 Junior Europeans
-  Layout salto with full twist (from RO)
     Olessia Dudnik (URS), '89 American Cup
-  Triple pirouette (Okino)
     Betty Okino (USA), '91 Worlds

Floor Exercise:

-  Full-twisting back layout
     Muriel Grossfeld (USA), '60 Olympics
-  Double-twisting back layout
     Zdenka Bujnackova (TCH), Joan Moore (USA), & Ludmila
     Turischeva (URS), '72 Olympics
-  Full twisting front layout
     Margit Toth (HUN), '76 Olympics
-  Tucked double back
     Nadia Comaneci (ROM), '76 American Cup
-  Tucked full-in
     Elena Mukhina (URS), '78 Worlds
-  Triple twisting back layout
     Maxi Gnauck (GDR), '79 Worlds
-  Full-twisting back layout, punch front
     Heidi Anderson (USA), '79 Moscow News
-  Double layout
     Diana Dudeva (BUL), '83 Worlds
-  Double-twisting back layout, punch front
     Oksana Omelianchik (URS), '85 Europeans
-  1 3/4 piked side salto
     Elena Shushunova (URS), '85 Europeans
-  Full-in, full-out
     Aleftina Priakhina (URS), '86 Junior Europeans
-  Double front salto
     Olga Strazheva (URS), '86 Junior Europeans
-  Double back layout with full twist in 1st salto
     Tatiana Tuzhikova (URS), '87 Worlds
-  Double full-in, back out
     Tatiana Groshkova (URS), '89 Chunichi Cup
-  Double back layout with full twist in 2nd salto
     Oksana Chusovitina (URS), '91 Worlds
-  Double front salto with 1/2 twist in 2nd salto
     Lilia Podkopayeva (UKR), '95 Worlds


Floor Exercise:

-  Full twisting back layout
     Nobuyuki Aihara, Takashi Mitsukuri & Takashi Ono (JPN),
     '60 Olympics
-  Tucked double back
     Lasse Laine (FIN), '67 Europeans
-  Double twisting back layout
     Takashi Ono (JPN), '68 Olympics
-  Triple twisting back layout
     Eizo Kenmostu (JPN), '70 Worlds
-  Piked double back
     Nikolai Andrianov (URS), '73 Europeans
-  Piked full-in
     Vladimir Marchenko (URS), '74 Riga Intl.
-  Double layout
     Nikolai Andrianov (URS), '77 World Cup
-  Double front salto
     Jiri Tabak (TCH), '77 Europeans
-  1.5 twisting 1.5 side salto
     Kurt Thomas (USA), '78 Worlds
-  Triple back
     Valery Lyukin (URS), '87 Europeans
-  Double twisting front layout
     Neil Thomas (GBR), '90 Europeans

Pommel Horse:

-  Flairs
     Kurt Thomas (USA), '76 Olympics
-  Magyar Travel
     Zoltan Magyar (HUN), '76 Olympics
-  Handstand in the middle of a routine
     Bart Conner (USA), Peter Vidmar (USA), Alexander
     Ditiatin (URS), and Yuri Korolev (URS), '82 World Cup
-  Flairs to handstand and back down to Flairs
     Sven Tippelt (GDR), '88 Olympics
-  Tucked back salto dismount
     Lance Ringnald (USA), '88 Olympics


-  Tucked full-in dismount
     Nikolai Andrianov (URS), '73 Europeans
-  Double back layout dismount
     Nikolai Andrianov (URS), '77 World Cup
-  Triple back tucked dismount
     Yuri Korolev (URS), '81 Europeans
-  Double back salto to a hang (Guczoghy)
     Gyorgy Guczoghy (HUN), 82 World Cup
-  Double front salto to a hang (Yamawaki)
     Kyoji Yamawaki (JPN), '84 Olympics
-  Double front salto with 1/2 twist dismount
     Yuri Balabanov (URS), '84 Olomouc
-  Layout Guczoghy
     Paul O'Neill (USA), '92 Worlds


-  Handspring, 1/2 twist to tucked back salto (Cuervo)
     Jorge Cuervo (CUB), '73 University Games
-  Cartwheel, layout side salto
     Roberto Richards (CUB), '80 Olympics
-  Handspring, double front salto
     Ricardo Richards (CUB), '80 Olympics
-  Layout Tsukahara with double twist
     Artur Akopian (URS), '81 Worlds
-  One-arm handspring to front tucked salto
     Laszlo Boda (HUN), '82 Junior Europeans
-  Layout Cuervo with full twist
     Lou Yun (CHN), '84 Olympics
-  Handspring, front salto with 1.5 twists
     Sylvio Kroll (GDR), 85 Europeans
-  Layout Yurchenko
     Li Jing (CHN), '89 American Cup

Parallel Bars:

-  Tucked double back
     Mauno Nissinen (FIN), '67 Europeans
-  Piked double back
     Bodgan Makuts (URS), '79 Worlds
-  Backwards giant swing to double back salto between
   the bars
     Koji Sotomura (JPN), '81 Worlds
-  Backwards giant swing with full twist
     Yuri Balabanov (URS), '84 Olomouc

High Bar:


-  Back salto straddled and piked with 1/2 twist to recatch
     Stoyan Deltchev (BUL), '77 Europeans
-  Reverse Hecht over HB to recatch (Tkachev)
     Alexander Tkachev (URS), '77 Europeans
-  Piked back salto with 1/2 twist to recatch
     Eberhard Gienger (FRG), '78 Worlds
-  One-arm giant swing to Tkachev
     Miguel Arroyo (CUB), '79 Worlds
-  Tucked double back salto over bar to recatch
     Kovacs (HUN), '79 Europeans
-  Full-twisting Gienger
     Jacques Def (FRA), '81 Worlds
-  Tucked front salto over bar to recatch
     Mitch Gaylord (USA), '81 Worlds
-  2 consecutive Tkachevs
     Yuri Korolev (URS), '82 World Cup
-  One-arm giant swing to Deltchev (one-hand recatch)
     Zsolt Borkai (HUN), '84 Olomouc

-  Double twisting back layout
     Gerhard Dietrich (GDR), '66 Worlds
-  Piked double back
     Andrzej Szajna (POL) & Mitsuo Tsukahara (JPN),
     '70 Worlds
-  Tucked double back with full twist
     Mitsuo Tsukahara (JPN), '72 Olympics
-  Tucked triple back
     Nikolai Andrianov (URS), '74 Worlds
-  Double back layout
     Nikolai Andrianov (URS), '77 World Cup
-  Double back layout with full twist
     Yuri Korolev (URS), '81 Europeans
-  Double twisting double layout salto
     Mas Watanabe (JPN), '83 Worlds
-  Tucked triple back with full twist in 1st salto
     Maik Belle (GDR), '87 Europeans
-  Triple twisting double back layout
     Alexander Fedorchenko (KAZ), '95 Worlds

[E.3]  Who are the current champions?

Team: Men (EUN), Women (EUN)
AA:   Vitaly Scherbo (EUN), Tatiana Gutsu (EUN)

Women's events:
V:   Lavinia Milosovici (ROM) and Henrietta Onodi (HUN)
UB:  Lu Li (CHN)
B:   Tatiana Lysennko (EUN)
FX:  Lavinia Milosovici (ROM)

Men's events:
FX:  Li Xiaoshuang (CHN)
PH:  Vitaly Scherbo (EUN), and Pae Gil Su (PRK)
SR:  Vitaly Scherbo (EUN)
V:   Vitaly Scherbo (EUN)
PB:  Vitaly Scherbo (EUN)
HB:  Trent Dimas (USA)


Team: Men (CHN), Women (ROM)
AA: Li Xiaoshuang (CHN), Lilia Podkopayeva (UKR)

Women's events:
V: Lilia Podkopayeva (UKR) and Simona Amanar (ROM)
UB: Svetlana Khorkina (RUS)
B: Mo Huilan (CHN)
FX: Gina Gogean (ROM)

Men's events:
FX: Vitaly Scherbo (BLR)
PH: Li Donghua (SUI)
SR: Yuri Chechi (ITA)
V: Grigory Misutin (UKR) and Alexei Nemov (RUS)
PB: Vitaly Scherbo (BLR)
HB: Andreas Wecker (GER)

Team:  Men (BLR), Women (ROM)
AA:   Ivan Ivankov (BLR), Gina Gogean (ROM)

Women's events:
V:   Lavinia Milosovici (ROM)
UB:  Svetlana Khorkina (RUS)
B:   Gina Gogean (ROM)
FX:  Lilia Podkopayeva (UKR)

Men's events:
FX:  Ivan Ivanov (BUL)
PH:  Marius Urzica (ROM)
SR:  Yuri Chechi (ITA)
V:   Vitaly Scherbo (BLR)
PB:  Alexei Nemov (RUS) and Rustam Sharipov (UKR)
HB:  Aljaz Pegan (SLO)

AA:  John Roethlisberger and Dominique Moceanu

Women's events:
V:  Shannon Miller
UB: Dominique Dawes
B:  Doni Thompson and Monica Flammer
FX: Dominique Dawes

Men's events:
FX:Daniel Stover
PH:  Mark Sohn
SR:  Paul O'Neill
V: David St. Pierre
PB: John Roethlisberger
HB: John Roethlisberger

[E.4]  Who are the former champions?

These are just the most recent results.  For more complete
results, read the results files found at


The USSR women won the team title in every Olympic Games in
which they took part.  The exception is the '84 Olympics,
which the USSR boycotted.  Romania captured the gold on this
occasion.  Three men's teams have won Olympic gold.  Japan
has won 5 times ('60, '64, '68, '72, and '76), and USSR 4
times ('52, '56, '80 and '88) and the USA once ('84).

AA (women,men)
1952:  M. Gorokhovskaya (URS), V. Chukarin (URS)
1956:  L. Latynina (URS), V. Chukarin (URS)
1960:  L. Latynina (URS), B. Shakhlin (URS)
1964:  V. Caslavska (TCH), Y. Endo (JPN)
1968:  V. Caslavska (TCH), S. Kato (JPN)
1972:  L. Turischev (URS), S. Kato (JPN)
1976:  N. Comaneci (ROM), N. Andrianov (URS)
1980:  E. Davydova (URS), A. Ditiatin (URS)
1984:  M. Retton (USA), K. Gushiken (JPN)
1988:  E. Shushunova (URS), V. Artemov (URS)

World (men team, women team, men AA, women AA)
1954: URS; URS; V. Muratov (URS); G. Rudiko (URS)
1958: URS; URS; B. Shakhlin (URS); L. Latynina (URS)
1962: JPN; URS; Y. Titov (URS), L. Latynina (URS)
1966: JPN; TCH; M. Voronin (URS); V. Caslavska (TCH)
1970: JPN; URS; E. Kenmostu (JPN); L. Turischeva (URS)
1974: JPN; URS; S. Kasamatsu (JPN); L. Turischeva (URS)
1978: JPN; URS; N. Andrianov (URS); E. Mukhina (URS)
1979: URS; ROM; A. Ditiatin (URS); N. Kim (URS)
1981: URS; URS; Y. Korolev (URS); O. Bicherova (URS)
1983: CHN; URS; D. Bilozerchev (URS); N. Yurchenko (URS)
1985: URS; URS; Y. Korolev (URS); E. Shushunova & O. Omelianchik (URS)
1987: URS; ROM; D. Bilozerchev (URS); A. Dobre (ROM)
1989: URS; URS; I. Korobchinsky (URS); S. Boginskaya (URS)
1991: URS; URS; G. Misutin (URS); K. Zmeskal (USA)
1993: [no team]; V. Scherbo (BLR); S. Miller (USA)
1994: CHN; ROM; I. Ivankov (BLR); S. Miller (USA)

1955: [no women]; B. Shakhlin (URS)
1957: L. Latynina (URS); J. Blume (ESP)
1959: N. Kot (POL); Y. Titov (URS)
1961: L. Latynina (URS); M. Cerar (YUG)
1963: M. Bilic (YUG); M. Cerar (YUG)
1965: V. Caslavska (TCH); F. Menichelli (ITA)
1967: V. Caslavska (TCH); M. Voronin (URS)
1969: K. Janz (GDR); M. Voronin (URS)
1971: L. Turischeva & T. Lazakovich (URS); V. Klimenko (URS)
1973: L. Turischeva (URS); V. Klimenko (URS)
1975: N. Comaneci (ROM); N. Andrianov (URS)
1977: N. Comaneci (ROM); V. Markelov (URS)
1979: N. Comaneci (ROM); S. Deltchev (BUL)
1981: M. Gnauck (GDR); A. Tkachev (URS)
1983: O. Bicherova (URS); D. Bilozerchev (URS)
1985: E. Shushunova (URS); D. Bilozerchev (URS)
1987: D. Silivas (ROM); V. Lyukin (URS)
1989: S. Boginskaya (URS); I. Korobchinsky (URS)
1990: S. Boginskaya (URS); V. Mogilny (URS)
1992: T. Gutsu (UKR); I. Korobchinsky (UKR)

[F.1]  What is the IOC? FIG? USOC? USAG? USGF? NCAA? AAU?

All of these cryptic abbreviations represent organizations
or "governing bodies" in the sport of gymnastics.

IOC - International Olympic Committee.  President is Juan
Antonio Samaranch.  Headquarters are in Switzerland.
Organizes the Olympics.

FIG - Federation International de Gymnastique (International
Federation of Gymnastics).  President is Yuri Titov.
Headquarters are in Moutier, Switzerland.  International
governing body for the sport of gymnastics.

USAG/USGF - "USA Gymnastics" (operating name) or "US
Gymnastics Federation (legal entity).  President is Kathy
Scanlan; Chair of the Board of Sandy Knapp.  Headquarters
are in Indianapolis, IN.  National governing body (NGB) for
gymnastics in the USA.  USAG is a member of both the USOC
and the FIG.

NCAA - National Collegiate Athletics Association.  President
is Cedric Dempsey.  Headquarters are in Kansas City, MO.
Governing organization for collegiate sport in the USA.

AAU - Amateur Athletic Union.  Headquarters are in
Indianapolis, IN.  Former national governing body for the
sport of gymnastics in the USA.  Presents the Sullivan Award
each year to the beat amateur athlete in the nation.

USAIGC - US Association of Independent Gymnastics Clubs.

CGA - Collegiate Gymnastics Association.

[F.2]  How do I get tickets to...?

Usually you can just call Ticketmaster for that city and
they will have information.  If in doubt, you can e-mail USA
Gymnastics at to request more information,
or call them at (317-237-5050).

[F.3]  Why don't gymnasts really compete as a team, all at
once on the mat?

There is another sport called "acrogymnastics" or "sports
acrobatics" in which gymnasts do compete with each other on
the mat.  Divisions are women's pair, women's trio, men's
pair, men's four, and mixed pairs (one man and one woman).
Acrogymnastics in the US is governed by the US Sports
Acrobatics Federation.  There are world championships held
for sports acrobatics but it is not yet an Olympic sport.
It's quite popular, however, and is hoping to be a
demonstration sport soon.  Sports acro also includes men's
and women's tumbling.

[F.4]  What is rhythmic gymnastics?

Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport that demands a high skill
level in manipulating and controlling various apparatus
while performing a routine on the floor mat.  Gymnasts (only
women participate in RSG) are not allowed to flip or perform
acrobatic elements but rather concentrate on expressing
their choreography, demonstrating mastery of the apparatus
and performing leaps, spins, rolls, and other elements.
There are five apparatus (hoop, clubs, ribbon, rope, and
ball) but only four are competed each year.  Gymnasts either
perform alone or in groups or five.  The group event will be
added to the Olympics for the first time in 1996.  Sometimes
artistic gymnasts will turn to rhythmic gymnastics in favor
of the lower rate of injury in the rhythmic version of the

[F.5]  How do I get involved?

To enroll in gymnastics classes, check your yellow pages for
gymnastics schools.  Good questions to ask the gym are if
their instructors are USGF safety-certified, what type of
insurance coverage they have, and what programs they offer
(competitive, recreational, etc.).  Speak to parents at the
gym for references.

[F.6]  What do gymnasts wear?

Yes, gymnasts do wear underwear, if you were wondering.
Generally, in practice, girls wear tank leos and biker
shorts.  Men will wear short and a t-shirt (or whatever is
handy).  In competition, the women wear long-sleeved
leotards, and men wear a jersey that resembles a tank-top
leotard ("comp top"), with either shorts or competition
pants, depending on the event they are competing.  Some
gymnasts will wear special shoes; if swinging bars or
competing on rings, they will wear "grips" on their hands to
secure their grip of the bar or ring.  On parallel bars, men
will wear tubes of fabric on their upper arms to prevent
from ripping off the skin (which happens when they catch a
double or other flighty skill).

[F.7]  What is the chalk for?

The chalk that gymnasts rub on their hands and sometimes
feet is magnesium carbonate.  It absorbs any sweat on the
hands and/or feet and enables the gymnast to improve their
grasp of the bar and thus their swing around it.

[G.1]  Are there any gymnastics resources on the Net?

Quite a few!  Check out Gymn's web page,

for more information.

[G.2]  Are there any good magazines to subscribe to?

Magazines about the elite/international arena of gymnastics

Gym Stars
44 Fitzjohn's Avenue
London NW3 5LX

International Gymnast
P.O Box 2450
Oceanside, CA 92051

USA Gymnastics
Pan American Plaza
Suite 300
Indianapolis, IN 46255

Other magazine addresses can be found at

Copyright (c) 1995 by Rachele Harless, Debbie Poe, all
rights reserved.  This FAQ may be posted to any USENET
newsgroup, on-line service or BBS as long as it is posted in
its entirety and includes this copyright statement.  This
FAQ may not be distributed for financial gain.  This FAQ may
not be included in commercial collections of compilations
without express permission from the authors.


End of GYMN-L Digest - 26 Nov 1995 - Special issue